Indeed, there is evidence that perennial grasses with potential for biofuel production, such as Miscanthus, may be associated with N2‐fixing bacteria (Tjepkema & Burris, 1976; Davis et al., 2010; Mao et al., 2013; Keymer & Kent, 2014), which points to N2‐fixing microorganisms as an important target group. Contact Us . No significant differences among locations or treatments were evident at the phylum level. IndVal results indicated Geobacter was significantly associated with Michigan sites and Bradyrhizobium and Rubrivivax were significantly associated with Wisconsin sites. One of my subscribers suggested that i keep mowing it down an it will die. The highest-quality seed available is what we strive to offer at Prairie Moon Nursery. Good's coverage was high, ranging from 97.2 to 99.6 with a mean of 98.9%. Microbial data (lipid, 16S/18S rRNA, and NifH data) from the intensive sites were analyzed by PCA and pmanova (Table 1 and Fig. Primer sequences were modified by the addition of 454 A or B adapter sequences (lower case). Switchgrass is high in lignin, making it a good biochar feedstock. 4) and for differences in dispersion among factors. S8). Sequences not identified as fungi by the RDP classifier with the confidence filter set at 0.5 were removed, leaving a total of 119 793 sequences in 632 categories, 94 of which were universal singletons. Intensive sites were located at the Arlington Agricultural Research Station (AARS) in Wisconsin and at the Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) in Michigan (triangles). Additionally, the lipid and NifH data separated the samples by location (Table 2 and Fig. No AMF sequences were recovered from soils cultivated with corn in Michigan. Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Because the amplicons were ligated with the adapters and bar codes, both primer sequences were entered in the forward primer box. For this reason, we used a more holistic approach for our study. MII = Michigan intensive sites; MIE = Michigan extensive sites; WII = Wisconsin intensive sites; WIE = Wisconsin extensive sites; Co = corn; Mp = mixed grasses; Pr = prairie; Sw = switchgrass. Microbial Diversity and Soil Health in Tropical Agroecosystems. Bacterial and SF biomasses were similar among treatments for intensive sites in both states. Soil depth and crop determinants of bacterial communities under ten biofuel cropping systems. Indval analysis was limited to clusters with at least 10 sequences. The lipid data separated corn from switchgrass and prairie (Fig. 32115 Prairie Lane Winona, MN 55987; Toll Free / 866-417-8156 Local / 507-452-1362 Email Us; Let's Connect. (2001) do exclude certain groups. Ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria are the primary N2O producers in an ammonia‐oxidizing archaea dominated alkaline agricultural soil. Because it’s a warm-season type grass, it’s very drought tolerant but also thrives in wet soils. Lipid analysis provided general taxonomic information coupled to biomass estimates that gave insight into ecosystem function (Kirk et al., 2004). Impact of newly introduced perennial bioenergy crops on soil quality parameters at three different locations in W‐Germany We characterized and compared soil microbial communities under restored prairie and three potential cellulosic biomass crops (corn, switchgrass, and mixed prairie grasses) in two spatial experimental designs – side‐by‐side plots where plant communities were in their second year since establishment (i.e., intensive sites) and regionally distributed fields where plant communities had been in place for at least 10 years (i.e., extensive sites). Data were displayed per crop, and mean and errors bars were calculated for each of the experiments types. Of these, Paraglomus sequences were by far the most abundant in the dataset. We obtained 124 654 28S rRNA gene sequences for the 16 extensive sites samples retained in the study, with an average read length of 446 bp. Wisconsin extensive sites exhibited higher microbial biomass per treatment than corresponding intensive sites, especially for the corn and prairie sites. Table S1. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. Twenty microliter PCRs were performed in duplicate and pooled to minimize PCR bias using 0.4 μl Advantage GC 2 Polymerase Mix (Advantage‐2 GC PCR Kit, Clonetech, Mountain View, CA, USA), 4 μl 5× GC PCR buffer, 2 μl 5 m GC Melt Solution, 0.4 μl 10 mm dNTP mix (MBI Fermentas, Amherst, MA, USA), 1.0 μl of each 25 nm primer, and 10 ng sample DNA. About 15% of the sequences had frame shift errors detected and corrected by FrameBot, such that more than 99% of the sequences were retained for analysis. Furthermore, the large number of sequences and OTUs made it difficult to detect relevant indicator organisms based on rRNA pyrosequencing data. S7). Genera contributing the most to the ordination were Geobacter, most abundant in the Michigan switchgrass samples, and Hyphomicrobium, characteristic of prairie sites in both states. Panicum virgatum. Others includes sequences from Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Cyanobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Nitrospirae, Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Verrucomicrobia. PCR amplification of template DNA was also performed using the primers LR3 (5′‐CCGTGTTTCAAGACGGG‐3′) and LR0R (5′‐ACCCGCTGAACTTAAGC‐3′) (Liu et al., 2012). For both states, the Gram‐positive/Gram‐negative (Gm+/Gm−) ratio was lower (Fig. Switchgrass is a native, perennial, warm-season, sod-forming tall grass. The reason for this large discrepancy is important to resolve for proper accounting of this important group of soil fungi. Environmental data were not available for sample WIE.Sw.2. Chemical attributes of soils from Michigan (MI) and Wisconsin (WI) intensive and extensive sites. As arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were identified by lipids analysis as an abundant group, we sought to identify fungal sequences belonging to this group in the 28S rRNA gene pyrosequencing data. All nifH sequences also were initially processed using the pyrosequencing pipeline tools on RDP's Web site. The Michigan soils we studied are sandier and have lower fertility than the Wisconsin soils, which are loess‐derived. This is a desirable outcome, because systems with soil microbial communities similar to those under prairies should require fewer external inputs and, for this reason, be more sustainable. 1b). From Canada to the Gulf Coast, to everywhere in between, Switchgrass doesn’t seem to mind. Two years ago, we used sheep to plant a diverse mixture of cover crops and perennial pasture plants. Watch Store Tour. HABITAT & HARDINESS: The parent species Panicum virgatum ranges through most of the southern Canadian provinces and the contiguous United States. Within this phylum, closest matches to the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria were generally more abundant and Gammaproteobacteria least abundant. Community differences due to AMF would not be revealed by the rRNA or NifH data. Except for pH and Cu, the measured soil variables, which are all linked to nutrient concentrations in the soil, were positively correlated with higher percentages of silt. Soil microclimates influence annual carbon loss via heterotrophic soil respiration in maize and switchgrass bioenergy cropping systems. Both presence of perennial plants and higher plant diversity likely favored the accumulation of microbial biomass and fungi, especially AMF, under switchgrass, mixed grasses, and prairie, leading to a more stable environment and highlighting that these alternatives to corn for biofuels may improve soil functional stability and sustainability. The grass persists into winter. Switchgrass(Panicum virgatum L.) ist ein Präriegras aus Nordamerika. COREMIC: a web-tool to search for a niche associated CORE MICrobiome. Prokaryote sequences (86.3%) were mostly bacterial with only 0.02% belonging to Archaea. (2013) in that communities under corn were separated from those under perennial grasses by lipids and 16S rRNA gene analysis, respectively. PCR amplicons were purified using SPRI Beads and quantified using a Qubit fluorometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA). 4c), indicating that the Wisconsin samples were also more variable. Bacteria were further subdivided into Gram‐positive (Gm+) and Gram‐negative (Gm−) categories, and the fungi, into arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and saprophytic fungi (SF) (Liang et al., 2012). Figure S7. Community structure of soil fungi in a novel perennial crop monoculture, annual agriculture, and native prairie reconstruction. Bridging biofuel sustainability indicators and ecosystem services through stakeholder engagement. Cytoplasmic streaming is known to occur in soil fungi, often resulting in evacuated hyphae because their protoplasm is concentrated at the growing tips (Klein & Paschke, 2004). NifH nucleotide sequences were deposited in the European Nucleotide Archive (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena) as part of study PRJEB6704 under accession numbers ERR571353 through ERR571395. Bars represent ±1 standard error. HABITAT & HARDINESS: The parent species, Panicum virgatum, ranges through most of the southern Canadian provinces and the United States. In our case, we targeted the nifH gene, which codes for dinitrogenase reductase, a component of nitrogenase, the enzyme responsible for N2 fixation. It grows taller on fertile and clay soils, frequently reaching five or six feet. For the extensive sites in Wisconsin, the higher biomass under perennial grasses was due to an increase in the biomass of both fungi and bacteria, and more so to fungi, but for those sites in Michigan, it was due to fungi only (Fig. Fungi, Metazoa, and Cercozoa were the more abundant eukaryotic phyla at both intensive and extensive sites. Switchgrass. But for the most part, these studies have been performed in local settings and the need to carry out studies at larger geographic scales, including sites with different management types, different times since crop establishment, and for a range of soil conditions is necessary to better examine shifts in microbial communities. (2005) and Mao et al. In a more recent study, Gaby & Buckley (2012) reported that no nifH primers were comprehensive for the known nifH genes and that the primers developed by Poly et al. 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